Forming a Unified Framework
The Contextual ABC-X Model offers the following variables to provide a general explanation of stress and coping—resources, perceptions and adaptation within varying contexts. The Leiter model focuses our attention on work-related stress that results in burnout. This model contributes the following variables: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment and the two coping styles clinicians employ to address burnout: control coping and escape coping. Finally, the Burnout Contagion Model contributes one more variable: emotional contagion that leads to exhaustion. The emotional contagion variable suggests that burnout is experienced and shared within the work environment of human service professionals.
To review, each of the aforementioned models brings with them various definitions and variables. For example, each model discusses various types of stressors. The ABC-X Model (Hill, 1952) uses the term "stressor" to describe various situations that try a family or individual. According to the McCubbin et al. (1980), stress is also defined as a stimulus, and inferred inner state, and an observable response to a stimulus or situation. The Leiter Model (Leiter, 1991) includes "organizational stressors" which are work overload and interpersonal conflict. According to this model other stressors can include: the lack of or overuse of coworker support, skill utilization, and supervisor support. Within the Bakker et al. (2001) Burnout Contagion Model, an example of a stressor would be burnout complaints in colleagues, which is a form of negative emotional contagion.