Integrated ABC-X Model of Burnout
Each of these models offers unique ways of looking at processes around stress, burnout, and emotional contagion. However, one model by itself does not capture the way that these elements can be viewed as a whole. For example, the ABC-X Model does not explain the phenomena of emotional contagion by itself, nor does the Leiter Model. Similarly, the Burnout Contagion Model does not specifically address the variables found in the ABC-X or Double ABC-X Models—A (stressor), B (resources), C (perceptions), X (crisis) or Double A (stressor pileup), Double B (ways of coping), and Double C (perceptions of initial stressor or perception of stress or crisis). It appears that each model by itself lacks helpful explanations afforded by another modality. Therefore, these three models together help to contribute variables to the overarching view of the processes surrounding the three core (while the others are important too) variables affecting self-care:
- Emotional contagion
- Emotional exhaustion
An explanation is now given for how these three models have been joined to better explain the processes surrounding burnout. The marriage of these three models is referred to below as the "Integrated ABC-X Model of Burnout."
Points of Integration
The Double ABC-X Model expanded on the general ABC-X Model by explaining what happens following a crisis (X), but for purposes of the Integrated ABC-X Model of Burnout (see Figure 8 above); the mal- and bonadaptation components of the Double ABC-X were removed. In their place were put the two types of coping found in the Leiter Model. In essence, "bon-and maladaptation" from the Double ABC-X Model were replaced with the Leiter Model terms of "escape" and "control" coping. Another important variable was added to the model—"emotional contagion." It is important to note that emotional contagion can be negative and positive in nature.