Models of Supervision
It was believed that because the master was quite good at the work he or she would be equally good at teaching/supervising. This is not the case. Clinical supervision and counseling have much in common. The two tasks also utilize separate and distinct skills. A master clinician may not always be a master supervisor without the addition of training and competency in supervisory knowledge and skills.
Clinical knowledge and skills are not as easily transferrable as the master-apprentice model implies. Observing experienced clinicians at work is without question a useful training tool but is not sufficient. Development is facilitated when the supervisee engages in reflection on the counseling work and relationship as well as the supervision itself. Clinical supervision is now recognized as a complex exchange between supervisor and supervisee with supervisory models/theories developed to provide a frame for it.
Theory is a way to bridge science and practice of supervision. How we think about what we do as clinical supervisors, that which guides our practice. Theorizing guides the interventions, techniques, and strategies we choose in supervision and guides what information we attend to and what information we ignore.
Clinical supervision started as the practice of observing, assisting, and receiving feedback. Supervision follows the framework and techniques of the specific psychotherapy theory/model. As the need for specific supervisory interventions became evident, supervisory models developed within each of these psychotherapy theories/models to address this need.