Providing Clinical Supervision for Home-Based Family Therapists Module

Module Sections:

Models of Supervision Continued

  • Psychotherapy based supervision models 
    • Psychotherapy based models of supervision often feel like a natural extension of the therapy itself. “Theoretical orientation informs the observation and selection of clinical data for discussion in supervision as well as the meaning and relevance of those data” (Falender & Shafaanske, 2008, p9).
  • Cognitive Behavioral supervision
    • Cognitive behavioral supervision makes use of observable cognitions and behaviors- particularly of the supervisee’s professional identity and his/her reaction to the client. Cognitive behavioral techniques used in supervision include setting an agenda for supervision sessions, bridging from previous sessions, assigning homework to the supervisee, and capsule summaries by the supervisor.
  • Person Centered Supervision
    • Carl Rogers developed person centered therapy around the belief that the client has the capacity to effectively resolve life problems without interpretation and direction from the counselor. Person centered supervision assumes that the supervisee has the resources to effectively develop as a counselor. The supervisor is not seen as an expert in this model, but rather serves as a collaborator with the supervisee. The supervisor’s role is to provide an environment in which the supervisee can be open to his/her experience and fully engaged with the client.
    • In this therapy “the attitudes and personal characteristics of the therapist and the quality of the client therapist relationship are the prime determinants of the outcomes of therapy” (Haynes, Corey, & Moulton, 2003, p.118). Person centered supervision adopts this tenet as well, relying heavily on the supervisor and supervisee relationship to facilitate effective learning and growth in supervision.
  • Developmental Models of Supervision
    • For supervisors employing a developmental approach to supervision, the key is to accurately identify the supervisee’s current stage and provide feedback and support appropriate to that developmental stage while facilitating the supervisee’s progression to the next stage.
    •  As the supervisee approaches mastery at each stage, the supervisor gradually moves the scaffold to incorporate knowledge and skills from the next advanced stage. The supervisee is exposed to new information and counseling skills, but the interaction between supervisor and supervisee also fosters the development of advanced critical thinking skills. A supervisee may be in different stages simultaneously; that is the supervisee may be at mid-level development overall but experience high anxiety when faced with a new client situation.
    • The developmental models of supervision suggest that supervisees pass through a number of predictable, universal stages in their growth as clinicians, or in their supervisory relationships. Each stage is characterized by particular needs, conflicts, or tasks the clinician must resolve to continue her growth.  Suffer from lack of empirical evidence.
  • Social-Role Models
    • Supervision model that is not directly tied to a particular counseling theory are the social role models. These are more descriptive in nature and attempt to provide a schema for organizing the various things that supervisors do.
      • Bernard’s (1979) discrimination model suggests three functions and three roles of supervision organized in a 3x3 celled matrix. The functions are to help supervisees master skills of process, conceptualization and personalization. The roles are those of teacher, counselor, and consultant. Each cell represents a different way a supervisor might help supervisees master needed counseling skills, based on a specific supervisory situation. Lanning (1986) add a fourth function or skill set of professional behavior.
      • Holloway (1995) proposed a comprehensive model of supervision that had five functions of supervision:
        • monitor and evaluate
        • instruct and advise
        • model
        • consult
        • support and share.
      • She also proposes five tasks or areas of focus for supervision: Counseling skills, case conceptualization, professional role, emotional awareness, and self-evaluation. She calls this 5x5 grid the process matrix and suggests that supervisors can use the matrix to evaluate the effectiveness of particular combinations of focus and method. Holloway’s model also considers the impact of four broad contextual factors on the supervision process: the supervisor, the supervisee, the client, and the setting where supervision occurs. She notes the central role relationship between supervisor and supervisee plays in the supervision process.